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Root filling mature teeth can offer a very predictable result, but highly immature canines, premolars and molars are usually extracted. Immature canines with dilated apical foraminae may be treated through a surgical endodontic procedure but offer a poor long term prognosis and the posterior teeth require large access cavities if root fillings are performed, which leaves the remaining crown in a weak and vulnerable condition.

The following photographs illustrate the basic principles of endodontics:

Live pulp extruding from the root canal.

Pulp being extirpated in total from the canal.

Canal being prepared with an extra long endodontic file.

Debris being removed from the root canal.

Clean canal being dried.

Endodontic sealant being injected into the root canal.

Gutta Percha points sealed in the canal before being cut off.

Final amalgam restoration immediately after insertion.

Three year follow-up of a root filled tooth demonstrating the durability of the material.

Composite build-ups or cast crowns are unnecessary and unethical in a carnivore's oral environment. They will inevitably fail and the animal will require further immobilisation with associated risks. Our primary aim is to provide oral health in the most predictable, rapid and atraumatic way so the animals truly benefit from the therapy.

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