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The are occasions when it is impossible, inadvisable or impractical to retain teeth through endodontics and extractions are mandatory. Such as infected teeth that are immature or teeth that are fractured longitudinally. Or teeth that would take an unacceptably long anaesthetic time to treat conservatively.

Carnivore teeth that are not periodontally involved are well retained in the alveolus through the morphology of their roots and their extractions should strictly follow oral surgical principles to speed up the operation, minimise the surgical trauma and risk of mandibular fractures.

Longitudinal fracture of a canine of a tiger.

Large infected root canal of an immature canine tooth of a lion.

Once a large mucoperiosteal flap has been reflected alveolar bone is judiciously removed to eliminate the mechanical retention of the root before elevation is attempted.

Longitudinally fractured root showing the necrotic material in the root canal.

Closure of the mucoperiosteal flap due to the good design of the incision lines.

Post-operative healing is usually uneventful if basic principles are followed.

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