The most common problems we are asked to treat are fractured teeth in carnivores. The canine teeth are the most prominent and vulnerable, and become damaged most frequently.



Once the pulp becomes exposed it does not possess the properties to heal itself, and in time it becomes infected and necrotic. Antibiotic therapy will not stop the infection and active treatment is required. (See the Endodontics and Extraction therapy options below).

Occasionally we do see teeth where blunt trauma had devitalised the pulp without an exposure of the pulp chamber, as illustrated with the Striped Hyena below. If fractured teeth with pulp exposures are ignored, the infection can destroy the surrounding alveolus and the purulent material can drain intra or extra-orally.

Five year old elephant with maxillary second and third molars visible. (Asian)

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ame animal as in the previous photograph six months later after the loss of the left maxillary second molar.

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Same animal as before at the age of 10 years showing third molars fully in occlusion with the fourth molars erupting caudally.

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Please select an option below for further illustrations of trauma therapy: